History of Mongolia

Mongolia 's history spans 5.000 years. From nomads herding the Central Asian steppe to the formation of the powerful Mongol Empire and the gradual emergence of the Mongolian Republic , its history is steeped in conflict.

Ancient Mongolian States

The first Mongolian state was established in 209 BC by Huns or Hunnu people. The name Hunnu comes from two ancient Mongolian words. "Hun" means "man" and "nu" translates as "sun". The Hun's first king was Modun Shan Yui, whose father Tumen was chieftain of Hun's most influential tribe.

The Huns territory stretched from Korea in the Far East to Tian Shan Mountain in northern China and from the southern section of the Great Wall to Lake Baikal in southern Siberia . From 200 BC until its collapse in 98 AD, the Hun state was the most powerful nomadic nation residing in the sprawling Central Asian steppe and mountain., But, after three hundred years of domination the Hun state imploded, ruined by internal conflicts between powerful chieftains.

After the Hun state collapsed several other ambitious clans established their own states and dominated Mongolian territory up until 1200 AD. The first domination state after the Hun's collapse was the Sumbe State , which lasted until the 3 rd century BC. The Toba finally took over the Sumbe state inn 250 AD and established its own state with a number of tribal allies. In turn the Tobas were defeated by the Nirun, who were forced to hand the state over to Turkic tribes who established the Tuger Kingdom On Mongolia in 552 AD. Thousand of Turkic people had arrived from the far west via the Altai Mountains during the 4 th century AD. They extended the ancient feudal system, but were also defeated by their own internal conflicts in 745 AD.

The Uigar tribe then became the most powerful in Central Asia, but were unable to dominate the whole of Mongolia . It was the Kidans, who had peacefully coexisted with several previous ruling tribes, who took over Mongolia in 907. Their dominance lasted until the 12 th century when a number of Central Asian tribes invaded at the same time. There was now no ruler in Mongolia and this vast territory was divided and subdivided into tribal areas.

The Mongol Empire

Temujin was born into the Esugui in 1162 and is best known as Chinggis (Genghis) Khan. His father was a chieftain of one of the numerous tribes and was killed by the Tatars when Temujin was just 9 years old.

With the support of his father's friends, Temujin established the Great Mongol State in 1189. By 1206 he had united 81 different Mongolian tribes and established the Great Mongolian Empire in 1206, when he was crowded as Chinggis Khan. He died in 1227. Subsequent Mongolian Khans were chosen from following generations of Chinggis Khan's children.

During the 13-14 th centuries, Mongolia developed in terms of its economy, culture, military strength and politics. It was a huge, sprawling empire which encompassed many separate Asian and European nations. Still known as the Golden Era of Mongolian history, during this time the Mongol Empire was the most powerful nation on earth. Chinggis Khan was a great military general, statesman and Mongolian national hero.

The Mongol Empire began to fall apart in 1368. This was bound up with the collapse of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty, which had been established in China after Kublai Khan named Beijing the new Capital of the Mongol Empire.

The Manchurians conquered Mongolia in 1691 and the Manchurian colonization lasted for 220 years. By the beginning of the 20 th century Mongolians were embroiled in a straggle for national liberation, which finally came to fruition in December 1911, when the Manchurians withdrew and Mongolia's independence was proclaimed in Urguu (as Ulaanbaatar was previously known). Mongolia 's theocratic ruler Bogd Khan was awarded power across the entire country.


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