Turks and the First Turkish States
Turks first appear in history in the 7th century B.C. at the foot of the Kögmen Mountains . Throughout history the Turks have established numerous states in various geographical regions on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa . Since they possessed a pioneering spirit, they brought their culture to the places to which they had migrated and were also affected by the cultures of these regions. According to Chinese records, Turkish political history in Asia commenced with the Huns. The Hun State , which first appeared in the 3rd century B.C, became a significant and powerful state during the reign of its founder, Mete Khan. Having a defined and special strategy, Mete Khan defeated the Mongols and then the Yuechis and after having taken the western gates and trade routes of China under his control, gained significant economic power. When Mete Khan died, the Great Hun Empire was at its peak due to its military organization, domestic and foreign policies, religion, army, war strategies and arts.
After the collapse of the Asian Hun State , a new state called the Göktürk Empire was founded at the foot of the Altay Mountains . The Göktürks, who were the first to employ the word "Turk" in their official state name, chose Ötüken, the former capital of the empire as a base and established Khanates. Later they spread out and became an Empire. They professed that a khanate could not be ruled by means of war and bravery alone and that wisdom was very important. Bilge Khan and Kül Tegin are noted as the wisest and most heroic figures among Turkish statesmen in history. It was because of this that both the Khans and Tonyukuk, another Göktürk Khan, immortalized their accomplishments with inscriptions. These inscriptions are the first written texts of the Turkish language.
The Uigur Turks, who were the native tribes of the Orhun and Selenge valleys, established the third great Turkish State in 741. They later were dispersed by an attack of the Kyrgyz Turks in the northwestern part of the capital.